被權慾吞噬的馬克白

[讀後感]
《Macbeth》

被權慾吞噬的馬克白

2+macbeth

書名:Macbeth
作者:William Shakespeare
出版日期:1606年
類型:戲劇-悲劇

作品背景

英倫大文豪沙士比亞筆下的悲劇《馬克白》(Macbeth),我列為人生必讀的劇作。估計寫於英王詹姆斯一世(James I of England)從蘇格蘭南下英格蘭登基後,於1606年首次演出,1623年收錄成書。《馬克白》也是詹姆斯時期的首部作品。

示好之作

《馬克白》不多不少反映了沙翁與新任英王的關係。前朝伊莉沙白一世女王十分看重沙翁,當時沙翁先後創作了以前朝作背景的歷史戲劇,其中《李察三世》,玫瑰戰爭作為背景,把李察三世塑造邪惡的國王,一直影響後世對李察三世的形象是位怐慺、陰險,甚至殺害親侄兒的叔叔。沙翁的劇作在當時可算是維穩作品。

《馬克白》也是向英王示好之作。一來他是大文豪的最大贊助人。二來這部悲劇極有可能是間接進揀英王,小心不要成為像馬克白般的暴君,同時也是小心身邊小人的教唆,尤其是女人。(可能是英王后Anne of Denmark,傳聞是一位天主教徒,怕她會左右宗教政策。)

Théodore Chassériau (1819–1856), Macbeth seeing the Ghost of Banquo, 1854

唯獨馬克白一人在宴會上看見被自己謀殺的將軍Banquo。 Macbeth seeing the Ghost of Banquo (by Théodore Chassériau)

利慾分心

不論歷史背景是如何,讓《馬克白》流名後世,是因為沙翁用一個簡短而富戲劇性的故事去告誡人們,人被權慾控制時,足以動搖國本,塗炭生靈。是一部寓言。

未在權力之位的人,看《馬克白》就會對權慾有所以防範,時刻提醒自身,如果將來一日掌權,也不可被權慾吞噬。

如已在權力之位的,如英王、主教、大地主、將軍等等,是一個低調的警惕。每人知道的位置,做好本份,為大局著想,更況人民就是最好的監察,不合理的就會群起對抗。

沙翁洞悉人心,對人性的光明及陰暗面都異常透澈。讀《馬克白》,不同年紀不同的情況都有不同的收獲。我最初在小學時代讀過兒童版本,當是故事書,驚訝原來權力能使人不顧一切做出恐佈的事,達到侵蝕到心肺之嚴重程度,滿身惡毒。長大後出身,看著周邊的人與事,社會上種種的大小人物,這時再翻讀,就更加心水清,了解人的慾望足以摧毀一切。

讀史本身就能對周邊的人事更透撤了解,而讀《馬克白》就是用一個帶有奇幻、戲劇色彩的短劇,長話短說地說大道理。讀通了《馬克白》,做人處世必定玲瓏剔透得多,能在亂世中保持清醒及理智。

Lady Macbeth sleepwalking by Johann Heinrich Füssli

Macbeth: Act 3, Scene 2
Lady Macbeth:
Nought’s had, all’s spent,
Where our desire is got without content;
‘Tis safer to be that which we destroy
Than by destruction dwell in doubtful joy.

以上一段講述馬克白夫人得到權力後,發現原來不能帶來平和。

Macbeth: Act 5, Scene 1
Doctor:
Foul whisp’rings are abroad. Unnatural deeds
Do breed unnatural troubles. Infected minds
To their deaf pillows will discharge their secrets.
More needs she the divine than the physician.
God, God forgive us all! Look after her,
Remove from her the means of all annoyance,
And still keep eyes upon her. So, good night.
My mind she has mated, and amazed my sight.
I think, but dare not speak.

以上一段是由治療馬克白夫人的醫生診症後對待女所說的—人會在睡眠中告白愧心事,心病還需心藥醫,所以醫生是不能治癒她的。


The Scottish Play異聞
《馬克白》同時也一部話題性的的戲劇。多年來流傳不少異聞,最著名就是在劇院裡直接讀「Macbeth」會引發不幸的事,所以人們都以「The Scottish Play」代替劇名。傳說劇中三位女巫的咒語是沙翁是真的,而女巫看見這部《馬克白》非常憤怒繼而向戲劇下咒。另一個傳說就是劇中的咒語根本就是沙翁自己向戲劇下咒,令自己成為唯一的導演。


最後送上女巫初見的咒語,讀起來還真的感到邪門。

Macbeth consulting the Vision of the Armed Head by Johann Heinrich Füssli

Macbeth: Act 4, Scene 1
The Witches’ Spell

A dark Cave. In the middle, a Caldron boiling. Thunder.
Enter the three Witches.
1 WITCH. Thrice the brinded cat hath mew’d.
2 WITCH. Thrice and once, the hedge-pig whin’d.
3 WITCH. Harpier cries:—’tis time! ’tis time!
1 WITCH. Round about the caldron go;
In the poison’d entrails throw.—
Toad, that under cold stone,
Days and nights has thirty-one;
Swelter’d venom sleeping got,
Boil thou first i’ the charmed pot!
ALL. Double, double toil and trouble;
Fire burn, and caldron bubble.
2 WITCH. Fillet of a fenny snake,
In the caldron boil and bake;
Eye of newt, and toe of frog,
Wool of bat, and tongue of dog,
Adder’s fork, and blind-worm’s sting,
Lizard’s leg, and owlet’s wing,—
For a charm of powerful trouble,
Like a hell-broth boil and bubble.
ALL. Double, double toil and trouble;
Fire burn, and caldron bubble.
3 WITCH. Scale of dragon; tooth of wolf;
Witches’ mummy; maw and gulf
Of the ravin’d salt-sea shark;
Root of hemlock digg’d i the dark;
Liver of blaspheming Jew;
Gall of goat, and slips of yew
Sliver’d in the moon’s eclipse;
Nose of Turk, and Tartar’s lips;
Finger of birth-strangled babe
Ditch-deliver’d by a drab,—
Make the gruel thick and slab:
Add thereto a tiger’s chaudron,
For the ingrediants of our caldron.
ALL. Double, double toil and trouble;
Fire burn, and caldron bubble.
2 WITCH. Cool it with a baboon’s blood,
Then the charm is firm and good.

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One thought on “被權慾吞噬的馬克白

  1. Pingback: 永恆莎翁—《浴血金鑾殿》 – Dracula's Castle 歌德古堡

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